Plan jest następujący: codziennie opracuję odpowiedzi na co najmniej 5 pytań i zrobię sobie tzw. flash cards (pytanie po jednej stronie kartki, odpowiedź po drugiej). Zakładając dla równego rachunku 100 pytań – powinnam się uporać w ciągu 20 dni. Zatem, biorąc pod uwagę wyjazd na Słowację i do Rzymu, powinnam mieć gotowe odpowiedzi najpóźniej 6 listopada. Kiedy już je będę miała, daję sobie dwa tygodnie na naukę i pod koniec listopada powinnam zdać egzamin w Maidenhead. Zatem zaczynamy…
1. Where have migrants come from in the past and why? What sort of work have they done?
Europe, Middle East, Africa and the Caribbean. In particular from:
- France (16th/ 18th century) – Huguenots – to escape religious persecution
- Ireland (1840s) – to escape famine (caused by the English). They became labourers building canals and railways.
- Russian Empire – now Poland, Ukraine and Belarus (1880 – 1910) – to escape ‚pogroms’ – racist attacks.
- Ireland (after WW2) – to help with reconstruction.
- West Indies (1948 and 1950s) – invited to come and help; drive buses, work in textile and engineering industries.
- India and Pakistan, later Bangladesh – as above.
- Uganda (1972) – Indian origin refugees.
- Vietnam (late 1970s) – refugees.
- US, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand in 1980s.
- Former Soviet Union (1990s) – looking for a new and safer way of life.
2. Do women have equal rights in voting, education and work, and has this always been the case?
Yes, women currently have equal right in voting, education and work. No, this has not always been the case. Women gained the following rights and freedoms:
- right to divorce (1857)
- right to own earnings, property and money (1882)
- right to vote and stand for election for women over the age of 30 (1918 after WW1)
- right to vote at 21 – the same as men (1928)
- right to equal pay and prohibiting employers from discriminating against women because of their sex (1960s and 1970s)
Women in Britain today make up 51% of the population and 45% of the workforce. Despite regulation, the average hourly pay rate for women is 20% less than for men.
3. Do many children live in single parent families or step-families?
- almost 25% (of 15 million children and young people) live in lone-parents families.
- 65% live with both birth parents.
- 10% live with a step family.
4. When do children take tests at school? How many go on to higher education?
Children between the ages of 5 and 16 must attend school. Education in Britain is free and compulsory. So called ‚public’ schools are in fact private. The tests they have to take are as follows:
- Scotland and England – English, mathematics and science when they are 7, 11 and 14 (also in Wales).
- Wales – take a test at 14 (and are assessed by teachers at 7 and 11).
- at 16 most young people take: GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) ;
- or in Scotland – Scottish Qualification Authority (SQA) Standard Grade exams.
- at 17 and 18 many take vocational qualifications – AGCEs – General Certificates of Education at an Advanced level (A levels)
- or in Scotland – AS level units or Higher /Advanced Higher Grades
One in three go on to higher education at college or university. There is a government target that 50% of young people attend higher education. Young people are eligible to vote in elections from the age of 18.
5. What are the minimum ages for buying alcohol and tobacco? What drugs are illegal?
- minimum age for buying tobacco products and alcohol is 18 (since 2007)
- heroin, cocaine, ecstasy, amphetamines and cannabis are illegal